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The main difference is that DXA uses two X-ray intensities which allow measurement of bone mineral and soft tissue masses separately the latter includes fat and lean tissue masses Ellis, ; Laskey, Hence, it is used primarily to determine bone mineral density and body composition in vivo Ellis, ; Fuller et al. Signal and image processing, computer vision and their applications in sports science. It is similar to gamma-ray scanning as it relies on the attenuation of radiation beams passing through the body to measure surface density. Biomechanics and Performance in Sport. Furthermore, Carter and Ackland, reported that anatomical characteristics of elite swimmers also vary with genders and swim events strokes and distances. Thus, considerable anatomical variations are found between athletes from different sports and the general population; which, in turn, may lead to significant differences in BSIPs of these populations.

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Several modeling technique approaches can be performed, as proposed in previous studies Durkin and Dowling, ; Durkin et al. Data Processing Previous studies used the linear relationship between the attenuation coefficients of the high energy beams, and each was recorded in rectangular elements that formed the scan area matrix and the mass of a given phantom Durkin et al. The shoulder and hip joint centers were sccanner by clicking on the regions of the BMD image that represented the centers of the heads of the humerus and femur bones.

Because the software did not allow mass element data to be exported into any other formats, it was necessary to establish aetec relationship between mass elements and the pixel intensity of the scan images.

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Therefore, indirect BSIP estimation methods derived from small, non-sport-specific groups may not be sufficient to calculate accurate BSIPs for elite athletes.

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Furthermore, in a within-group research designs, the sample mean is used as a representative value of the group. In contrast, estimation of COM produced the least errors when using any of the indirect estimation methods.

This approach, however, was not enough to provide low and consistent levels of MAPE between the groups for all segments and, especially, was more evident for the lower limbs. While inaccurate BSIPs can create errors, the errors incurred when using indirect methods scanndr not known. Repeatability of gait data using a functional hip joint centre and a mean helical knee axis.

In addition, the root mean square error was calculated for each of the five indirect BSIP estimation methods, and applied to elite male and female swimmers. Kinanthropometry in Aquatic Sports: Moreover, rather than the absolute value of scannet I xx or the radii of gyrations, they presented the radii of gyration as percentages of the segmental lengths.

Human Kinetics Publishers; Over the years, the spine tends to shorten its longitudinal length due to disc flattening when losing the nucleus pulposus from the middle of the spinal disc.

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However, to estimate joint kinetics and internal forces e. Indirect estimations of BSIPs are based on relationships between anthropometric variables and the required inertial parameters. Guestplease be considerate by using the appropriate tags as well as checking your grammar before submitting or it will be deleted. But, in contrast, tissue mass was estimated with marginal errors.

This function used body landmark coordinates as input to determine the joint centers and sectioning planes Figure 4. A segment biomechanical model head, upper trunk, middle trunk, lower trunk, upper arms, forearms, hands, thighs, shanks and feet was scznner so that all BSIP estimation methods could be fitted easily to the model.

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Extrapolating those data to other populations is restrictive due to their different body morphologies. Moreover, once elderly cadavers are scahner, there needs to be some consideration of the ageing effect over the spine.

For instance, studies in Computer Fluid Dynamics CFD have explored how the external forces propulsive and drag are generated by the water medium as a result of the body kinematics underwater Bixler and Schloder, ; Lyttle and Keys, ; Marinho et al. This should result in a linear relationship between the shade of a given pixel of the image, and the areal density of the region represented by the pixel i. Artec Scanrom 4E Scanner Driver 1. Markerless analysis of front crawl swimming.

Any significant differences which occurred in absolute errors of indirect BSIP estimation methods; when applied to elite male swimmers, elite female swimmers, and young adult Caucasian males, also were determined. The whole process is described in Rossi et al. This is a geometric method using cylindrical and stadium-shaped solids to represent body segments.

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Therefore, similar comparisons for COM and I xx are not provided, as the values could not be computed in the same way. Scanber inertial properties of Chinese adults determined from magnetic resonance imaging. Durkin and Dowling, urged caution with subjects not reasonably matched to those whom the equations were devised. It is similar to gamma-ray scanning as it relies on the attenuation of radiation beams passing through the body to measure surface density. Sport performance analyses of 4f athlete populations demand precision because 0.